The 30-year-old midfielder recently lifted the Premier League trophy at Anfield, and that success has now been capped by winning the prestigious personal award.
He said: "As grateful as I am I don't feel like I can accept this on my own.
"I owe a lot to so many people but none more so than my current team-mates, who have been incredible and deserve this every bit as much as I do."
The top five list of candidates was completed by the likes of Virgil van Dijk and Sadio Mane, as well as Kevin de Bruyne and Manchester United's Marcus Rashford.
Henderson explained that his triumph was a reflection of Liverpool's exceptional league season, which has seen them win the Premier League trophy at a canter.
He said: "I accept [the award] on behalf of this whole squad, because without them I'm not in a position to be receiving this honour. These lads have made me a better player - a better leader and a better person.
"If anything I hope those who voted for me did so partly to recognise the entire team's contribution."