The 20-year-old, who was an unused substitute in the Blues' 0-0 FA Cup third round draw at Norwich on Saturday, was an Under-20s World Cup winner with England last summer.
Clarke-Salter has made two senior appearances for Chelsea, but boss Antonio Conte feels a spell out on loan with the Black Cats will help his development more at this stage.
Black Cats boss Chris Coleman said: "Jake is a hugely talented young player who has jumped at the opportunity to come to this club and show people what he can do.
"You don't play for a club like Chelsea unless you have tremendous ability and I'm sure he will be able to demonstrate that for Sunderland.
"Jake is exactly the type of hungry young player I have spoken about and he has shown me just how keen he is to come to here and play in front of our supporters."
Clarke-Salter is likely to go straight into the squad for Saturday's league trip to Cardiff, where the Black Cats will attempt to drag themselves from the foot of the table amid a crippling injury crisis.