The Conservative Party Leader wants the country to become an example in regards to the safe and ethical deployment of AI technology.
May observed that AI technology poses one of the "greatest tests of leadership for our time".
But, she added: "It is a test that I am confident we can meet.
"For right across the long sweep of history from the invention of electricity to advent of factory production, time and again initially disquieting innovations have delivered previously unthinkable advances and we have found the way to make those changes work for all our people."
Views about AI technology differ wildly, with Professor Stephen Hawking warning that it could "spell the end of the human race".
However, Google's former chief Eric Schmidt has insisted that the rollout of AI technology will not lead to lots of people losing their jobs, as has been speculated.
Speaking to the BBC, he explained: "There will be some jobs eliminated but the vast majority will be augmented.
"You're going to have more doctors not fewer. More lawyers not fewer. More teachers not fewer. But they are going to be more efficient."
Meanwhile, Maciej Sieradzki, the lead developer at Robots of London, recently claimed that AI technology is an accepted part of everyday life in Japan.
The lead developer at Robots of London explained that the east Asian country has already embraced the technology in a way that Europe has yet to do.
Sieradzki explained: "There is a different attitude towards robots in Japan. They're an accepted part of everyday life."